energy and financial terms

energy terms

Specialty chemicals incorporated into fuels and lubricants that enhance the performance of the finished products.

A unit of measure to quantify crude oil, natural gas liquids and natural gas amounts using the same basis. Natural gas volumes are converted to barrels on the basis of energy content. See oil-equivalent gas and production.

Hydrocarbons that are in a gaseous state at reservoir conditions, but condense into liquid as they travel up the wellbore and reach surface conditions.

Drilling, construction and related activities following discovery that are necessary to begin production and transportation of crude oil and natural gas.

Techniques used to increase or prolong production from crude oil and natural gas reservoirs.

The impact on Chevron’s share of net production and net proved reserves due to changes in crude oil and natural gas prices and spending levels between periods. Under production-sharing contracts (PSCs) and variable-royalty provisions of certain agreements, price and spending variability can increase or decrease royalty burdens and/or volumes attributable to the company. For example, at higher prices, fewer volumes are required for Chevron to recover its costs under certain PSCs. Also under certain PSCs, Chevron’s share of future profit oil and/or gas is reduced once specified contractual thresholds are met, such as a cumulative return on investment.

Searching for crude oil and/or natural gas by utilizing geologic and topographical studies, geophysical and seismic surveys, and drilling of wells.

A process that converts natural gas into high-quality liquid transportation fuels and other products.

Gases that trap heat in Earth’s atmosphere (e.g., water vapor, ozone, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulfur hexafluoride).

A company engaged in all aspects of the energy industry, including exploring for and producing crude oil and natural gas; refining, marketing and transporting crude oil, natural gas and refined products; manufacturing and distributing petrochemicals; and generating power.

Natural gas that is liquefied under extremely cold temperatures to facilitate storage or transportation in specially designed vessels.

Separated from natural gas, these include ethane, propane, butane and natural gasoline.

The volume of natural gas needed to generate the equivalent amount of heat as a barrel of crude oil. Approximately 6,000 cubic feet of natural gas is equivalent to one barrel of crude oil.

Naturally occurring mixture of bitumen (a heavy, viscous form of crude oil), water, sand and clay. Using hydroprocessing technology, bitumen can be refined to yield synthetic oil.

Compounds derived from petroleum. These include aromatics, which are used to make plastics, adhesives, synthetic fibers and household detergents; and olefins, which are used to make packaging, plastic pipes, tires, batteries, household detergents and synthetic motor oils.

Total production refers to all the crude oil (including synthetic oil), NGLs and natural gas produced from a property. Net production is the company’s share of total production after deducting both royalties paid to landowners and a government’s agreed-upon share of production under a PSC. Liquids production refers to crude oil, condensate, NGLs and synthetic oil volumes. Oil-equivalent production is the sum of the barrels of liquids and the oil-equivalent barrels of natural gas produced. See barrels of oil-equivalent and oil-equivalent gas.

An agreement between a government and a contractor (generally an oil and gas company) whereby production is shared between the parties in a prearranged manner. The contractor typically incurs all exploration, development and production costs, which are subsequently recoverable out of an agreed-upon share of any future PSC production, referred to as cost recovery oil and/or gas. Any remaining production, referred to as profit oil and/or gas, is shared between the parties on an agreed-upon basis as stipulated in the PSC. The government may also retain a share of PSC production as a royalty payment, and the contractor typically owes income tax on its portion of the profit oil and/or gas. The contractor’s share of PSC oil and/or gas production and reserves varies over time, as it is dependent on prices, costs and specific PSC terms.

Crude oil and natural gas contained in underground rock formations called reservoirs and saleable hydrocarbons extracted from oil sands, shale, coalbeds and other nonrenewable natural resources that are intended to be upgraded into synthetic oil or gas. Net proved reserves are the estimated quantities that geoscience and engineering data demonstrate with reasonable certainty to be economically producible in the future from known reservoirs under existing economic conditions, operating methods and government regulations and exclude royalties and interests owned by others. Estimates change as additional information becomes available. Oil-equivalent reserves are the sum of the liquids reserves and the oil-equivalent gas reserves. See barrels of oil-equivalent and oil-equivalent gas. The company discloses only net proved reserves in its filings with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Investors should refer to proved reserves disclosures in Chevron’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2018.

Estimated quantities of oil and gas resources are recorded under Chevron’s 6P system, which is modeled after the Society of Petroleum Engineers’ Petroleum Resource Management System, and include quantities classified as proved, probable and possible reserves, plus those that remain contingent on commerciality. Unrisked resources, unrisked resource base and similar terms represent the arithmetic sum of the amounts recorded under each of these classifications. Recoverable resources, potentially recoverable volumes and similar terms represent estimated remaining quantities that are expected to be ultimately recoverable and produced in the future, adjusted to reflect the relative uncertainty represented by the various classifications. These estimates may change significantly as development work provides additional information. At times, original oil in place and similar terms are used to describe total hydrocarbons contained in a reservoir without regard to the likelihood of their being produced. All of these measures are considered by management in making capital investment and operating decisions and may provide some indication to stockholders of the resource potential of oil and gas properties in which the company has an interest.

Natural gas produced from shale rock formations where the gas was sourced from within the shale itself. Shale is very fine-grained rock, characterized by low porosity and extremely low permeability. Production of shale gas normally requires formation stimulation such as the use of hydraulic fracturing (pumping a fluid-sand mixture into the formation under high pressure) to help produce the gas.

A marketable and transportable hydrocarbon liquid, resembling crude oil, that is produced by upgrading highly viscous or solid hydrocarbons, such as extra-heavy crude oil and oil sands.

Liquid hydrocarbons produced from shale (also referred to as shale oil) and other rock formations with extremely low permeability. As with shale gas, production from tight oil reservoirs normally requires formation stimulation such as hydraulic fracturing.

financial terms

Cash generated from the company’s businesses; an indicator of a company’s ability to fund capital programs and stockholder distributions. Excludes cash flows related to the company’s financing and investing activities.

Total debt, including capital lease obligations, divided by total debt plus Chevron Corporation stockholders’ equity.

Net income attributable to Chevron Corporation as presented on the Consolidated Statement of Income.

The cash provided by operating activities less capital expenditures.

The difference between the cost of purchasing, producing and/or marketing a product and its sales price.

Ratio calculated by dividing earnings (adjusted for after-tax interest expense and noncontrolling interests) by the average of total debt, noncontrolling interests and Chevron Corporation stockholders’ equity for the year.

Ratio calculated by dividing earnings by average Chevron Corporation stockholders’ equity. Average Chevron Corporation stockholders’ equity is computed by averaging the sum of the beginning-of-year and end-of-year balances.

The return to stockholders as measured by stock price appreciation and reinvested dividends for a period of time.